1869: Goal-kicks are introduced for the first time, with corners following three years later.
1875: The crossbar replaces tape as the means of marking the top of the goal.
1878: A referee uses a whistle for the first time and the first floodlit match takes place at Bramall Lane between two local teams.
1882: The football associations of Great Britain unify their rules and form the International Football Association Board - the body that determines the Laws of the Game.
1891: Penalties are awarded for the first time, the goal net is accepted into the laws and the referee is allowed on the field of play.
1902: The penalty box and spot are introduced after it's decided penalties would be awarded for fouls committed in an area 18 yards from the goal line and 44 yards wide. The six-yard box was also introduced, although it took another 35 years for the 'D' shape at the edge of the area to be brought in.
1912: Goalkeepers are prevented from handling the ball outside the penalty area.
1925: The offside law - where players are onside if there are three players between the ball and goal - are reduced to two players.
1938: Laws of the Game are made by IFAB member Stanley Rous, who did such a good job that it was not revised again until 1997.
1958: Substitutes are permitted for the first time, albeit only for an injured goalkeeper and one other injured player.
1970: Red and yellow cards are introduced for the 1970 World Cup in Mexico.
1990: The offside law is changed in favour of the attacker, who is now onside if level with the penultimate defender.
1992: Goalkeepers are forbidden from handling back-passes from a team-mate's foot.
1994: The technical area is introduced into the Laws of the Game, with the fourth official following the next year.